In today’s era, there are multiple types of work based on several characteristics. Likewise, there are different classifications through which we can locate a kind of work or another.
In this article, we have selected five parameters to describe the different types of different work, with their respective examples.
Types of work (and their characteristics)
We will classify the different types of work according to five parameters, obtaining a total of 13 types of work that exist in the world of work.
1. Depending on the primary tool
The first classification that we will make of the existing types of work is based on the primary tool in each of them. That is, depending on whether the hands, creativity, or intellect are used primarily.
The first of the types of work that we are going to describe is manual work. This type of work involves the primary use of the hands.
Many consider it the oldest job in the world; before the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, manual labor was the one that predominated and was the only one that was known. Examples of professions that carry out manual work are bricklayers, carpenters, mechanics.
1. 2. Craftwork
Artisan work is actually a type of manual work, although specific creativity and originality is necessary to develop it in this case.
1. 3. Intellectual work
Another type of work is intellectual work; intellectual creation could be considered “contrary” to the previous one since in this case, it is the mind that is essential for its development. That is, the use of intellect and ideas is required, so they are usually jobs where a minimum of studies are required.
Generally, intellectual jobs have to do with professions in the field of science and technology. These types of work arose after the First World War, at which time tourism, service, insurance, etc. companies began to appear.
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2. Depending on the qualification required
The different types of work can also be classified according to the qualification necessary to access them (or for their correct performance).
In this case, we find low-skilled (or unskilled) jobs, semi-skilled, skilled, and highly skilled.
2.1. Low-skilled job
It is that type of work where the person who develops it does not need to have a minimum of studies or knowledge on a certain subject. They tend to be more mechanical jobs, with a lower level of demand in the intellectual sense (for example waiters, shop assistants, cleaning staff, etc.).
2.2. Semi-skilled work
The next type of work is semi-skilled work. It differs from the previous one in that a minimum of knowledge about a specific topic is necessary for the proper development of the work.
Yes, that is true, but such knowledge is not usually particular (hence the name “semi-qualified”). Examples of them are flight attendants, beauticians,
2. 3. Skilled work
We also have qualified work, where specific academic and professional training is necessary for the proper development of the work. That is to say, it is required to have a series of knowledge to qualify for this type of work.
They usually require at least: a higher degree, a career, a master’s degree, etc. Examples of professionals who develop a qualified job are nurses, doctors, pharmacists, engineers, psychologists, etc.
2. 4. Highly qualified work
In this case, it is a job similar to the previous one, although the level of demand (in terms of training and experience) is even higher.
We are talking about the need to have masters and doctorates, many years of experience, and similar requirements to access them. Examples of them would be certain specializations, specific engineering jobs, senior management positions, university professors, etc.
3. Depending on the legality
Different types of work can also be classified based on whether they are registered or not. What does this mean? Let’s see it:
3. 1. Registered work
Registered work is one in which the employer (or employer) pays a series of tax charges for each employee they have. (that is, you must register the employee with Social Security).
In other words, the employer must comply with current regulations and the laws corresponding to their sector. The worker or employee, in this case, when contributing to the Treasury, has a series of rights, such as: paid vacations, unemployment, retirement, etc.
3. 2. Unregistered work
In contrast, unregistered work (also called informal or non-formal work) would actually be work that is done “in the dark“, where the employer does not register its employees with Social Security.
That is, the employer or the person who hires would not pay anything to the Treasury for hiring their employees. It would therefore be illegal work, which does not comply with the regulations. In addition, workers, in this case, do not have the right to unemployment, paid vacations, sick leave or accident, etc.
Examples of this type of work are prostitution, cleaning personnel in some cases (generally, when they work for a private individual), reinforcement classes, babysitters or babysitters, etc.
4. Depending on who you work for
Depending on whether we work for someone else (for another company) or for ourselves (having different clients, that is, self-employed), we find two types of work:
4. 1. Work for others
Work for others is the most common; It involves working in a certain company (or several), in exchange for a payroll (salary) at the end of the month. There is a labor contract involved, and the worker has paid vacations and other benefits mentioned above.
4. 2. Self-employment
Also known as self-employed workers, self-employed persons, at the Treasury level, are registered in a different scheme than the usual scheme for people working in a certain company.
They pay a monthly fee in addition to the typical taxes that we all pay (that is, they pay their own Social Security).
Thus, they are employees and bosses at the same time (of themselves), since they choose their own clients and tend to have greater flexibility (hours, salary …). They generally have several clients and instead of having payroll at the end of the month, they issue invoices to them.
5. Depending on the place of realization
Finally, depending on whether the work is done in person (for example in the office itself) or telematically (for example at home or in a cafeteria, with a computer), we find the following two types of work:
5. 1. Face-to-face work
Face-to-face work, as its name suggests, is one that takes place in the company or workplace itself. Examples of face-to-face work? Any work that takes place in the office of a company; administration, marketing, economics …
5. 2. Telematic work (online)
On the other hand, telematic or online work can be carried out from anywhere that generally has an Internet connection and a computer.
It is an increasingly regular job; Many companies opt for a work method that combines face-to-face and telematic work (especially companies in the technology sector). Examples of professionals who usually develop this type of work are computer scientists, freelance writers.
- Hogg, MA (2010). Social psychology. Vaughan Graham M. Panamericana. Publisher: Panamericana.
- Rotundo, GZ (2012). Types of work and the formation of task specialization in the organization. Journal of Social Sciences (RCS), 18 (1): 58-73.